Tran Thi Ha Giang
Doctor, Faculty of Philosophy, Hanoi National University of Education
Email: [email protected].
Nguyen Kha Bac (Corresponding author)
Master, FPT College
Email: [email protected]
1. Natural geographical, socio-economic and cultural conditions affect the formation and development of thinking of the ancient Vietnamese
Vietnam is a country located in Southeast Asia, with mountainous terrain, midlands, plains, coastal areas and islands. The climate is tropical monsoon, forming two distinct winters and summers a year. Annual rainfall is relatively large, with a dense system of rivers. That has created a distinct nuance of wet rice civilization with farming practices, residence characteristics, social institutions, habits, psychology, behavior and forms of social consciousness such as: philosophy, religion, ethics, art....
The Hung Kings period dates from 700 BC to 43. This was the period of brilliant development of the Dong Son culture. The natural economy produces rice and vegetables seasonally. The common copper tools used in agriculture are copper plow nets, knives, axes.... have high yield.
In the book "Thuy Kinh Chu" it says: “Lac fields follow the tides and tides to work, the people urgently eat that field, so they are called Lac people”. That proves that the Vietnamese know how to do irrigation. The story "Son Tinh Thuy Tinh" speaks of the regular and continuous struggle against floods to protect crops. Besides farming, the Vietnamese of this period also knew how to raise livestock, poultry, and fish, considering it a secondary economic source. Handicrafts such as pottery making, weaving, bronze casting are also quite developed.
Although the agricultural economy is natural and self-sufficient, it ensures a stable life for the people, on that basis, a corresponding political institution is formed and developed, which is the state of Van Lang. The owners of Dong Son culture are Lac Viet people. In the midlands and coastal plains, there are about 15 tribes residing, Van Lang is the strongest tribe, playing the role of unifying into a tribal union. The first leader of the tribal union proclaimed the king – the custom called King Hung.
Under the reign of King Hung, the population in society was divided. The upper class of society is headed by the king, and below is the aristocracy (Lac Marquis, Lac General). Lac Marquis helped the king rule the country. Lac general administers the "areas" that make up the country of Van Lang. The king's son is called Quan Lang, the king's daughter is called Mi Nuong. The popular class is called "Lac people". Lac people "urgent fields" (agricultural production is the main) in aristocratic families there were servants. This class has no significant status and role in social life.
On the basis of the agricultural civilization of wet rice cultivation, the Vietnamese in the Hung Kings period built a rich spiritual culture. On the decorative motifs of Dong Son bronze drums, there are images of people dressed up to sing and dance to the rhythm of bronze drums, someone playing a love trumpet, and even an image of a boatman on the river. Customs and habits formed in Vietnamese communities. In general, the customs are pure and simple. Some popular customs such as tattooing, short hair, betel nut, black teeth... Every year, in spring or autumn, festivals are opened in all villages. Ceremonies to worship the gods were conducted, and performances such as cockfighting, boat racing, wrestling, and love singing attracted the participation of people from all walks of life.
2. Philosophical thought of Vietnam in the Hung Kings period
The Hung Kings period did not yet form a written script, but through the research works of archeology, linguistics, and ethnology, we can have general judgments about the thought of people in this period.
Regarding cosmology, Vietnamese people believe that the sky is round and the earth is square (the author knows this through the fairy tale of Banh Chung and Banh Day). The sun is the center of the universe (on the Dong Son bronze drum, the image of the shining sun is in the center). The sun gives light, the soil gives a good crop to feed people. Therefore, Vietnamese people have a belief in worshiping Heaven, Earth and nature gods. Every year, on festive occasions, Vietnamese people offer precious products bestowed by nature, show their devotion and gratitude to the gods, wish for favorable weather, good weather and good harvest fresh, safe and prosperous.
The Vietnamese people's belief in god worship, on the one hand, reflects their thinking about the universe, partly reflects the dependence of man on natural forces, reflects the low level of awareness, life still precarious.
The Vietnamese cosmology is also reflected in their view of the three worlds: Heaven, earth and human. For heaven and earth, respect, for human beings, love and solidarity; when they die, they mourn and remember. During funerals, Vietnamese people often perform rituals to drive away demons, then mourn and remember. Caring for the dead, reminding the dead about their fate, how to live in the afterlife. The burial of people who have lost precious objects (jewelry, weapons, production tools, etc.) represent people's conception of life in the afterlife. In many places, the dead are buried in one place (graveyard), but there are also places where the dead are buried at their residence. It shows feelings of attachment, mourning, and little fear for the dead.
On the surface of the Dong Son bronze drum, the images are always in a dynamic state (people dancing, sailing, etc.), showing that the ancient Vietnamese knew how to observe the world of things and phenomena around them regulatory issues. It can be said that in the struggle with nature, the virtues of persistence, patience, but no less creativity and intelligence have been formed in Vietnamese thinking.
The laws of motion of the universe are expressed through the conceptions of day and night and crops. Dual thinking about natural phenomena such as heaven - earth, dry - wet, fire - water, birds - fish, etc. was quite popular in this period.
It can be said that the Vietnamese people's idea of the essence of the universe through the forms of beliefs, myths, and decorative motifs on bronze drums is intuitive and emotional, but also imbued with innocence homely.
The idea of solidarity and community emerged as a major factor in the spiritual and cultural life of people in the Hung Kings period. The idea of solidarity and community shows the social nature of people, which is the life of Vietnamese people. Community is the basis for handling the beneficial relationship between material and spiritual, immediate and long-term, peace and war... Each individual only exists in relation to society. The existence of society is the first condition for the existence of every human being. Unite among members of the community to create strength against natural disasters and enemies
To build and protect lives, fight against natural disasters and wars, the Vietnamese cannot help but unite. They shared their backs and fought hard to build a village and do irrigation. A village is an individual's survival space.
Everyone is "in the same village", "eating together in the village", happy and sad, early and late at night together. There is a village elder in the village. The village elder, elected by the people, is a virtuous person who has experience in managing the general affairs of the village. In the village there are surnames, in the families there are genera and armor. The patriarchs play an important role in mobilizing family members to participate in village affairs.
Villages are relatively independent socio-economic units, but not because of that, villages are not related to each other. In a region there are villages. Due to the need to control water and fight against foreign invaders, the relationship between villages and towns is inter-village (province) and higher, super-village (national). The Hung Kings period was the period of the formation of a primitive state and a unified nation. The story of Mrs. Au Co laying hundreds of eggs not only explains the origin of the ethnic groups in Vietnam, but also reflects the community's ideology, in the same package, although it is different, it is a difference in unity people.
On the basis of the idea of community solidarity, patriotic ideology was formed. Patriotism is expressed in the love of family, clan and village. When there is a foreign invader, each member of the family and village contributes to fighting the enemy. The story of Thanh Giong, the villagers carrying rice and giving food to Giong to become a hero who went out to fight the enemy to clear the land is a vivid understanding of patriotic thought.
In 218 BC, Tan Thuy Hoang brought 50,000 troops to conquer Bach Viet, Thuc Phan led a guerrilla war. The resistance against Qin lasted for ten years and won. After the victory, Thuc Phan - An Duong Vuong was supported by the people to build a solid Co Loa citadel, with powerful bronze arrows, the Vietnamese scared the enemy. The combined military strength of Co Loa citadel demonstrates the excellent military art and strategy of An Duong Vuong and the people of Au Lac, affirming the spirit of determination to defend the country. The Zhao Dynasty invaded our country (179-111 BC), then the Han Dynasty occupied Nam Viet, renamed it Giao Chi, and divided our country into three districts: Giao Chi, Cuu Chan and Nhat Nam. In 40-43, Hai Ba Trung waved the uprising flag, all "65 strongholds" rose up to respond, raiding Luy Lau citadel, the headquarters of the Han Dynasty, the prefect Su Ding had to flee. It can be said that the Hai Ba Trung uprising is the most concentrated expression of patriotic thought against foreign invaders.
The Hung Kings period is considered as the dawn of history, the period of nation building and resilient struggle to defend the country. The patriotic thought of this period was like a spring thunder, signaling the continuation of the later glorious historical periods.
Although the thought of the Hung Kings period was scattered, fragmentary, not systematic and not highly generalizable, it was very important, it was a part of the famous Dong Son culture in Southeast Asia. The Hung King period was the period when the cultural basis of the Vietnamese people was formed, but because it was faded in the dust of time, it is very difficult to fully understand its ideology. It can only be affirmed that this is a period when life is diverse, rich, innocent, naive about the essence and universe, and throughout is community thought, patriotic thought, unrelenting spirit fight against foreign invaders. The Hung Kings period is the period of building the foundation of the Vietnamese nation, the foundation of Vietnamese culture and the spiritual tradition of Vietnam.
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3. Assoc.Prof.Dr. Doan Chinh (editor), History of Eastern Philosophical Thought, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2015.
4. Tran Van Giau (1975), The development of Vietnamese thought from the middle of the eleventh century to the August Revolution, 1st, 2nd, 3rd month, Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi.
5. Nguyen Tai Thu (editor), (1993), History of Vietnamese thought, T1. Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi.
Чан Тхи Ха Занг, доктор философии, факультет философии, Ханойский национальный педагогический университет.
Нгуен Кха Бак (автор ответственный за переписку), магистр, Колледж FPT.
ФИЛОСОФСКАЯ ИДЕОЛОГИЯ ВЬЕТНАМА В ПЕРИОД ХУНГСКИХ ЦАРЕЙ (ОКОЛО VII-II ВВ. ДО Н.Э.)
Аннотация: Вьетнам – страна с многовековой историей, традицией борьбы за построение и защиту страны. История вьетнамской идеологии — это зеркало, отражающее историю Вьетнама. Чтобы понять историю Вьетнама, невозможно не изучить историю вьетнамской идеологии. Сегодня позиции Вьетнама все более укрепляются на международной арене. Однако, столкнувшись с тенденцией глобализации, в том числе культурной глобализации, Вьетнам сталкивается со многими проблемами на пути развития. Чтобы не «раствориться» в европейско-американской культуре, нет другого пути, кроме сохранения и популяризации культурной самобытности нации. В Постановлении V конференции ЦК Компартии Вьетнама (IX сессия) четко сказано, что культура является не только «целью, но и движущей силой развития». История вьетнамской философской идеологии является частью вьетнамской культуры, поэтому изучение ценностей философской идеологии периода Хунгских королей способствует пониманию прошлого и повышению уверенности в будущем вьетнамской нации.
Ключевые слова: Философия, Вьетнам, Хунгский период,....
Tran Thi Ha Giang, Nguyen Kha Bac (Corresponding author)
PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT OF VIETNAM IN THE HUNG KINGS PERIOD (ABOUT THE 7TH TO THE 2ND CENTURIES BC)
Abtract: Vietnam is a country with a long history, a tradition of struggle to build and defend the country. The history of Vietnamese thought is a mirror reflecting the history of Vietnam. To understand the history of Vietnam, it is impossible not to study the history of Vietnamese thought. Today, Vietnam's position is increasingly affirmed in the international arena. However, facing the trend of globalization, including cultural globalization, Vietnam is facing many challenges on the way of development. In order not to be "dissolved" into European-American culture, there is no other way than to preserve and promote the cultural identity of the nation. The Resolution of the Fifth Conference of the Central Committee of the Vietnamese Communist Party (the IX session) clearly states that culture is not only "the goal but also the driving force of development". The history of Vietnamese philosophical thought is a part of Vietnamese culture, so the study of the philosophical thought values of the Hung Kings period contributes to understanding the past and increasing confidence in the future of the Vietnamese nation.
Key word: Philosophy, Vietnam, Hung Kings period....